Change of Modal Verb in Indirect Speech! When there is a modal verb in a statement, we want to report. This modal verb sometimes changes and sometimes remains unchanged.
The modal verbs could, would, should, might, used to, and ought to usually don’t change in the indirect speech.
Change of Modal Verb Could
The model verb could remain unchanged or change to had been able to or would be able.
Direct: Brother said, “I could teach you for two hours.”
Indirect: Brother said that he could teach us for two hours.
But, could may be changed to had been able to when expressing some abilities in the past and may remain unchanged when expressing future abilities or may be changed to would be able. For example
Direct: “I could cook much better.”
Indirect: She said that she had been able to cook much better.
Direct: David said, ‘I could visit there next week.”
Indirect: David said he could do it/would be able to do it the next day.
Must Learn: Basics Rules to Change Direct to Indirect Speech
Change of Modal Verb Might
Might remain might in the reported speech.
Direct: I said, “I might participate in the party if I have time.”
Indirect: I said that I might participate in the party if I had time.
Direct: Geeta said, “We might come tomorrow.”
Indirect: Geeta said that they might come the following day.
Change of Modal Verb in Indirect Speech (Ought to)
ought to remain ought to.
Direct: “They ought to widen this road,’ said the villagers
Indirect: The villagers said that they ought to widen the road.
Direct: The pupil said, “We ought to attend our classes.”
Indirect: The pupil said that they ought to attend their classes.
Change of Modal Verb in Indirect Speech (Used to)
Used to stay the same in indirect speech.
Direct: I used to be Ali’s friend.
Indirect: He said he used to be Ali’s friend.
Change of Modal Verb Should in Indirect Speech
Should remain should in indirect speech.
Direct: Salman said, “You should apologize to him.”
Indirect: Salman said to me that I should apologize to him.
Direct: He said to us, “You should not close this window.”
Indirect: He told us that we should not close that window.
If the expression ‘I should/would be expressing a request, then it is usually reported by
ask + object + infinitive, for example
Direct: “I would be very grateful if you’d informed me tomorrow,” Ahmad said
Indirect: Ahmad asked me to keep him informed. (would be changed to asked)
The Change of Modal Verbs in Indirect Speech (will, shall, can, may)
The present modals will, shall, can, and may change in reported in the following way.
Will/shall become would/should in Future simple tense
Direct: My friend said, “I will not work here.”
Indirect: My friend said that he would not work there.
Direct: Hassan said. “I shall study hard today.
Indirect: Hassan said that he should study hard that day.
Indirect: Usman said that he would be studying hard.
Direct: Iqra said, “I will call them tomorrow.”
Indirect: Iqra said that she would call them the following day.
Direct: She said, “Shall I help you?”
Indirect: He offered to help me.
Direct: “I shall meet you in the school,” said his sister.
Indirect: His sister said that she would meet me in the school.
Future Perfect, will/shall have changes to would/should have
Direct: He said, “I will have seen them.”
Indirect: He said that he would have seen them.
Direct: Saleem said, “I will have completed the homework.”
Indirect: Saleem said that he would have completed the homework.
Direct: Ali said, “They will have gone.”
Indirect: Ali said that they would have gone.
But will change to should when we are making a piece of advice or request and shall change to offer in reported speech when we express an offer.
Direct: The teacher said, “What will I do with your paper, My son!”
Indirect: The teacher asked his student what he should do with his paper.
Direct: “Shall we help you?”
Indirect: They offered to help him.
Will/shall be changed to would be in Future Continuous Tense
Direct: I said to him, “I will be studying with you.”
Indirect: I said to him that I would be studying with him.
Direct: ‘Altaf will be start working tomorrow.’
Indirect: Altaf said that he would be start working the following day.
Direct: We will be starting a new shop next week,” she said
Indirect: She said that they would be starting a new shop the following week.
Direct: “I shall be going to the theater this evening,” Asma said.
Indirect: Asma said that she would be going to the theater that evening.
Change of Modal Verbs in Indirect Speech (May Changes to Might)
Direct: He said, “You may meet him here.”
Indirect: He said that I might meet him there.
Direct: Ali said, “It may rain tomorrow.”
Indirect: Ali said that it might rain the following day.
Direct: ‘They may be famous.’
Indirect: They thought that they might be famous.
Change of Modal Verbs in Indirect Speech (Can changes to Could)
Direct: They said, “We can go now.”
Indirect: They said that they could go then.
Direct: She said, “I can speak English.”
Indirect: She said that she could speak English.
Direct: Eric said, “I can’t afford university fees.”
Indirect: Eric said that he couldn’t afford university fees.
Direct: He asked her, “Can you swim?”
Indirect: He asked if she could swim.
Modal Verb Must change to had to or would have to or probably or stay the same
Direct: He said, “The students must enter at once.”
Indirect: He said that the students had to enter at once.
Direct: He said, “We must join them.”
Indirect: He said that they must/had to join them.
Direct: The doctor said, “You must relax.”
Indirect: The doctor said that you must relax.
Direct: The manager said, “I must leave for the office early tomorrow morning.”
Indirect: The manager said that I had to leave for the office early the following morning.
Direct: “I must go next Friday,” He said.
Indirect: She said she would have to go the following Friday.
Direct: The tourist said, “This building must have been built long ago.
Indirect: The tourist believed that that building was probably long ago.
Needn’t changes to needn’t or didn’t need to or didn’t have to
Direct: He said to her, “You needn’t come until later.”
Indirect: He told her that she needn’t/didn’t need to/didn’t have come until later.
Direct: He said,” I needn’t go.”
Indirect: He said he didn’t have to go.
Direct: Aslam said, “I needn’t study anymore.”
Indirect: He said he wouldn’t have to study anymore.
Direct: She said, “Need I wear this suit?”
Indirect: She asked if she had to wear that suit.
Sometimes the original statement doesn’t have a model verb, but we use a model verb when we are reporting that statement.
Direct. He said, “You are not allowed to enter this room.”
Indirect. He said that I must not enter that room.
Direct: She said, “I wrote home every month.”
Indirect: She said that she would write home every month.