Types of Sentences According to Purpose! When we write a sentence, we have various reasons or purposes for writing them. The four main reasons for which we write sentences are:
- To make a statement.
- To ask a question
- To express one’s attitude about something
- To express a command, surprise, etc.
Types of sentences according to purpose are:
- Declarative sentences
- Interrogative sentences
- Exclamatory sentences
- Imperative sentences
Types of sentences according to purpose: Declarative Sentences (Definition and Examples)
A sentence which states a fact is called a declarative sentence. All declarative sentences end with a period. Declarative sentences are the most common use in all types of sentences. A declarative sentence has the following different structures.
Subject + verb
- The child cried.
Sentence Subject + verb + adverbial
- The flames spread everywhere.
Subject + verb + direct object
- She bought a doll.
Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object
- He promised me a present.
Subject + verb + direct object + adverbial
- She kissed the baby on the forehead.
Subject + verb + complement
- The boy seems worried.
Subject + verb + complement + adverbial
- She looked beautiful yesterday.
5 Examples of a declarative sentence
- They have eaten dinner.
- He has made several mistakes.
- I haven’t reached there on time.
- The children have gone to school.
- The moon is shining tonight.
Sometimes, a declarative sentence ends with exclamation marks instead of a full stop if we want to express strong feelings.
- Hana’s coming.
- Hana’s coming!
Both sentences express the same information. However, the second sentence not only conveys the same thought but also expresses strong emotion.
Note: A full stop is also called a period. This name for a full stop is often used in American English.
Types of sentences according to purpose :Interrogative Sentences (Definition and Examples)
A sentence that simply asks a question is called an interrogative sentence. A question mark denoted as (?) goes at the end of every interrogative sentence.
- Where are you from?
- Is the baby sleepy?
- When will we arrive?
In some sentences, we cannot decide whether a group of words makes a statement or asks a question. In this case, the only way to decide is to place a punctuation mark (?) at the end. For example
- He’s arriving this evening.
- He’s arriving this evening?
If a sentence consists of more than one part separated by commas and only one part of that sentence asks a question, the whole sentence is treated as an interrogative sentence.
- When will you go if you don’t want to go now?
- If she doesn’t want to go now, when will she go?
The interrogative sentences can be either yes/no questions, Wh-questions, or tag questions.
The yes/no questions mean the asked question can be answered either in yes/no. These types of questions usually begin with an auxiliary verb.
- May I help you?
- Does she speak Chinese?
- Is there enough water for us?
- Is your brother older than her?
Wh-questions are interrogative sentences formed with question words, i.e., who, when, how, why, where, etc.; the answers to these questions can be short or long.
5 examples of interrogative sentences
- Why did you decide to live in your old house?
- When is she going?
- How old is your brother?
- Who is that person?
- Where did you go last night?
Tag questions: A question formed by adding a question as a tag to the end of a declarative sentence is called a tag question. A tag question such as ‘aren’t you’ or ‘wasn’t it” is used to check if a person agrees with you or to check information.
- They are going to school, aren’t they?
- That isn’t your book, is it?
- Did you study hard, didn’t you?
Types of sentences according to purpose: Exclamatory Sentences (Definition and Examples)
A sentence that expresses a strong emotion is called an exclamatory sentence. The exclamatory sentences end with a unique punctuation mark called an exclamation point. It is denoted as “!”
Related: Sentence Definition and Examples
Exclamatory Sentences 5 Examples
- What beautiful weather today!
- My God! What a heavy rain.
- Oh! What bad luck!
- What a lovely baby!
- How stupid he is!
An exclamatory sentence might have any of these structures.
Complement + subject + verb
- What a beautiful girl she was!
- What lovely weather!
Direct object + subject + verb
- What horrible work he’s doing.
Subject + complement
- New machines work fast.
Some exclamatory sentences look like interrogative sentences but are, in fact, expressing a command. Such sentences are punctuated with an exclamation mark (!) rather than a question mark.
- Isn’t that a beautiful house!
Imperative Sentences (Definition and Examples)
A sentence that makes a request or gives an order is called an imperative sentence. An imperative sentence may end with a full stop or exclamation mark. It all depends on how forceful the request or order is.
Imperative Sentences Example
- Please help me. (Request)
- Get out of my room! (Command)
- Turn off the heater before you sleep.
- Sit down!
- How stupid he is!
- Do your work!
Imperative sentences do not take subjects. An imperative sentence can be made negative by putting do not before the infinitive.
In an imperative sentence, we don’t usually mention the subject. This is because the person giving the command is obviously talking to someone who is present; the subject is assumed to be you.
An imperative sentence can be made in any one of the following structures.
Verb + Complement
Verb + direct object
Verb + adverbial or subject + verb + adverbial
- Write a little quickly!
Verb + direct object + adverbial
- Study this book for two months.
Verb + direct object + indirect object + adverbial
- Give them access at once.
Subject + verb + adverbial
- She went to school.
Note: The structures discussed above for declarative, exclamatory, and imperative sentences aren’t all possible.
What are Positive and Negative Sentences
Positive Sentence: A sentence that does not have negative words, such as not, nothing, none, nor, nobody, nowhere, etc., is called a positive sentence. Positive sentences are also called affirmative sentences.
Examples of Positive Sentences
- She likes bananas.
- Please stop.
- He asked me how to study.
- His lecture was good, but the conclusion was too long and complicated.
- He has been to New Zealand.
- Is he arriving today?
Negative Sentence: A sentence that contains negative words, i.e., no, not, never, nowhere, nobody, etc., is called a negative sentence.
Examples of negative sentences
- There is no rice left.
- I have never been to England.
- He has got two phones, but neither works properly.
- I neither studied nor slept last night.
- Nobody agreed with them.
- The paper was not difficult.
How to Make a Positive Sentence Negative
To make a positive sentence negative, we have to place a negative word in the correct place in the positive sentence. The negative words usually go between the auxiliary and main verb as;
- I have not seen him yet.
- He is not working with us.
- I have never played piano.
When a sentence consists of more than one helping verb, these negative words go after the first auxiliary verb.
- He has not been driving since last Friday.
- I have never seen such a stupid person.
The be verb is used as either an auxiliary or main verb; in both cases, it can be followed by not.
- He isn’t rich.
- They aren’t coming.
Sometimes, simply putting a negative word in a positive sentence isn’t enough to make a sentence negative. In this case, changes to other terms in a sentence are also needed to make a positive sentence negative.
|I have watched many movies before.||I haven’t watched any movie before.|
|Bring some of your documents.||Don’t bring any of your documents.|
|I think he has something to tell us.||I don’t think he has anything to tell us.|
|He was talking to someone.||He wasn’t talking to anyone.|
|He is going too.||He isn’t going either.|
|There must be something someone can do.||There is nothing anyone can do.|